Robert A. Birmingham
Between A.D. 700 and 1100 Native Americans built more effigy mounds in Wisconsin than anywhere else in North America, with an estimated 1,300 mounds—including the world's largest known bird effigy—at the center of effigy-building culture in and around Madison, Wisconsin. These huge earthworks, sculpted in the shape of birds, mammals, and other figures, have aroused curiosity for generations and together comprise a vast effigy mound ceremonial landscape. Farming and industrialization destroyed most of these mounds, leaving the mysteries of who built them and why they were made. The remaining mounds are protected today and many can be visited. Spirits of Earth explores the cultural, historical, and ceremonial meanings of the mounds in an informative, abundantly illustrated book and guide.
- Paperback: 6"x9"
- 280 pages
- 130 b/w illustrations and maps
- Copyright 2009
- Finalist, Social Science, Midwest Book Awards
About the Author
Robert A. Birmingham served as Wisconsin State Archaeologist at the Wisconsin Historical Society for fifteen years. He now teaches at the University of Wisconsin—Waukesha and writes from his home in Madison. He is coauthor, with Leslie E. Eisenberg, of Indian Mounds of Wisconsin (awarded the Elizabeth A. Steinberg Prize), and, with Lynn G. Goldstein, of Aztalan: Mysteries of an Ancient Indian Town.