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Spirits of Earth: The Effigy Mound Landscape of Madison and the Four Lakes

Spirits of Earth: The Effigy Mound Landscape of Madison and the Four Lakes
Spirits of Earth: The Effigy Mound Landscape of Madison and the Four Lakes
Paperback: 274 pages
Publisher: University of Wisconsin Press
ISBN: 9780299232641
Price: $24.95
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By Robert A. Birmingham

Between A.D. 700 and 1100 Native Americans built more effigy mounds in Wisconsin than anywhere else in North America, with an estimated 1,300 mounds—including the world's largest known bird effigy—at the center of effigy-building culture in and around Madison, Wisconsin. These huge earthworks, sculpted in the shape of birds, mammals, and other figures, have aroused curiosity for generations and together comprise a vast effigy mound ceremonial landscape. Farming and industrialization destroyed most of these mounds, leaving the mysteries of who built them and why they were made. The remaining mounds are protected today and many can be visited. Spirits of Earth explores the cultural, historical, and ceremonial meanings of the mounds in an informative, abundantly illustrated book and guide.